Dr. Ahmet Özyiğit was born in 1981 in the Famagusta district of Cyprus. Ozgen and Dr. He is the youngest of Savaş Özyiğit's three children.

After completing his high school education at Türk Maarif College in 1998, he completed his undergraduate and graduate studies in economics in the American state of Kansas. Özyiğit, who later completed his doctorate education in the same field of science, published many articles in this field.

Özyiğit, who later became interested in medical science, studied medicine at the University of Nicosia Faculty of Medicine. In addition to this education, he received his master's degree in Clinical Embryology from the University of Leeds and postgraduate education in Endocrinology from the University of South Wales.

With an eclectic academic background, Dr. Özyiğit continues his clinical studies, especially on weight loss, metabolism and healthy aging. An active member of the American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine, Dr. Özyiğit applies anti-aging, weight loss and brain function improving treatments to his patients.

The Role of Magnesium on Health and Magnesium Supplements

Which Magnesium Supplement Should You Use? | Magnesium Deficiency and Magnesium Supplements

Magnesium; It is a necessary element that our body needs to establish biochemical balance and survive. Magnesium serves as a cofactor that enables hundreds of enzyme activities to begin. So far, there are more than 600 enzymatic reactions in which magnesium is known to take part. The most important of these biochemical processes include control of energy metabolism, protein synthesis, regulation of muscle and nerve function, sugar control and blood pressure control.

Fundamentally, magnesium has a key role in cellular homeostasis and organ functioning. Homeostasis means being able to adapt to different environmental factors, distress and changes. In this context, it should be said that the element called magnesium is vital for different cellular activities and harmony with other elements.

Yetişkin bir insan vücudunda ortalama olarak 22 ile 26 gram aralığında bir magnezyum seviyesi mevcuttur (1). Bu magnezyumun %53’ü kemiklerde bulunur. Geriye kalan miktarın %27’si kas hücrelerinde, %19’u yumuşak dokuda, %1 civarı ise kanda bulunur (2). Kısacası, bizim kan testleri ile ölçtüğümüz magnezyum, sadece vücudumuzdaki %1’lik kısmı temsil eder. Bu durumda, kanda ölçtüğümüz serum magnezyum seviyesi, hücrelerimizin içerisindeki magnezyum seviyesini yansıtmamaktadır.

Many clinical studies show that even when the serum magnesium level is normal, the magnesium level inside the cell may be low (3). In other words, even if we have a blood test and think that our magnesium level is normal, it is quite normal for us to experience serious magnesium deficiency due to our cellular magnesium level and experience related health problems (4). In people with chronically low magnesium intake, or in cases where magnesium absorption is insufficient, which is quite common to observe in older ages, our body tries to withdraw the necessary magnesium from the cells and bones to regulate the magnesium level in the serum. In this way, the serum magnesium level normalizes, but the magnesium in our cells and bones may decrease.

If we were to choose the three most important roles of magnesium in our bodily functions, these are:

1- bone health %53 magnezyum kemiklerdedir. O yüzden eksiklik olduğu zaman kemik sağlığı riske giren en önemli yer olur. Kemikler yeni kemik oluşumu ve kemik yıkımı arasında bir dengede kalırlar. Sürekli yeni kemik oluşumu yapan osteoblast ve kemik yıkımı sağlayan osteoclast adli hücrelerin arasında bir denge kurulur. Sürekli kemik yapımı da sürekli kemik yıkımı da istenilen aktiviteler değildir, o yüzden ikisi arasında ince bir denge kurulmalıdır. Magnezyum, direkt olarak osteoblast ve osteoclast aktivitesini regüle eder, yani, bu dengenin kurulmasında direkt olarak rol oynar. Dolaylı olarak Kalsiyum, PTH ve D vitamini üzerinde etki kurarak, kemik sağlığına dolaylı yoldan da katkı sağlar.

2- Nerve conduction and muscle function: Magnesium plays a very important role in brain cells, as in other cells. Magnesium has an important role, especially in communication between nerves and in establishing neurotransmitter balance. For example, they have roles such as regulating the activity of mechanisms such as GABA and NMDA. It helps in the activation of the GABA mechanism, triggering brain cells to form an effective network, and plays a role in coping with stress by regulating benzodiacepine activity. Continuous operation of the NMDA mechanism can cause the death of neurons, that is, brain cells. Magnesium is of vital importance in silencing this mechanism (5). There is strong data to suggest that magnesium deficiency plays a role in migraines and depression. In addition, there is new data showing that keeping cellular magnesium levels high has a protective effect against chronic pain, anxiety and stroke (6).


The common denominator of neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and multiple sclerosis, is inflammation in the brain, that is, neuroinflammation (7). Another common denominator is that magnesium levels are often low and unbalanced in neurodegenerative diseases (8). Clinical studies conducted in this direction show that magnesium deficiency may play a role in the onset or aggravation of such neurodegenerative diseases. In summary, keeping magnesium levels at desired levels can play a brain-protective role, especially in older people and people with a high risk of neurodegenerative diseases.

3- Glucose control and insulin metabolism: Magnesium has a role in the release of insulin. But also its phosphorylation role on insulin receptors, especially in muscle cells, is also very important. Thanks to its effect on receptors, it helps glucose enter the cell and therefore increases insulin sensitivity. In other words, insulin resistance is an expected situation in case of magnesium deficiency. In this case, it is also possible to develop insulin resistance due to magnesium deficiency, increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and observe fat in the abdominal area. In a comparative study, a statistically significant serious magnesium deficiency was detected in type 2 diabetic patients compared to non-diabetic patients (9). It has also been reported that low magnesium levels cause a faster deterioration of kidney functions in diabetic patients (10).

Gıdalardan veya takviyelerden alınan magnezyum’un ortalama olarak %30’u bağırsaklardan vücuda emilerek alınır. Bu rakam, magnezyum eksikliği olan kişilerde biraz daha yüksek olabilir. Yani, magnezyum eksikliği olduğu durumlarda, vücudumuz bilinçli bir şekilde içeriye alınan magnezyumu daha etkin bir şekilde kullanmaya çalışır. Magnezyumun vücutta kalmasını sağlayan diğer bir mekanizma da böbreklerde yer alır. Vücuttan atılmaya yüz tutmuş magnezyum’un büyük ölçüde böbreklerin filtrasyon sisteminden vücuda geri kazandırıldığı bilinmektedir. Eğer vücutta magnezyum fazlalığı varsa, bu geri kazandırılan magnezyum hemen idrar ile dışarıya atılır ve toksik seviyelere çıkmasının önüne geçilir (11).

There may be no change in serum magnesium level with age, but a serious age-related decrease in cellular magnesium level is observed. In other words, even if the magnesium level appears normal when the test is performed, the magnesium level present in the cells is well below the desired level. The reasons for the decrease in magnesium levels in the elderly population are decreased intestinal absorption, ineffective reabsorption from the kidneys, certain medications used (for example, diuretics and stomach protectors) and losses in bone density. However, ready-made foods with high sodium content, alcohol consumption and excessive coffee consumption are among the factors that reduce magnesium absorption (12) and are behaviors that can affect individuals of all ages.

Magnesium Supplements

It is especially important for people over the age of 40 to get enough magnesium in order not to decrease their quality of life and to protect against chronic diseases. A daily magnesium supplement of 500 to 1000 mg is generally considered appropriate. So, are all magnesium supplements the same?

If you go to a pharmacy and look at magnesium products, you'll see that there is actually more than one type of magnesium. Magnesium is not a substance that can exist on its own as an element. That's why it combines with other elements and exists as a compound. For example, you will encounter different compounds such as magnesium citrate, magnesium taurate, magnesium carbonate, magnesium glycinate, magnesium oxide, magnesium l-threonate. So which of these different magnesium compounds should you buy? Let's look at the different types of magnesium in general and examine their properties:

Magnesium Citrate– This compound is formed by combining the element magnesium with citric acid. It is generally the most available and lowest cost magnesium supplement on the market. It generally has a high absorption by the body, so it appears as an alternative that is both effective and low in cost. When taken in high doses, magnesium has an osmotic effect, drawing more water into the intestines and triggering diarrhea. Therefore, it is an element used in the treatment of constipation. Since magnesium citrate has a high body absorption, it can penetrate the body more than other types of magnesium, which increases the possibility of a side effect such as diarrhea. If we suffer from chronic constipation and want to take magnesium supplements, we can kill two birds with one stone with magnesium citrate.

Magnzeium Oxide– It consists of the combination of magnesium and oxygen ions. Its absorption in the body is quite low, but since the amount of elemental magnesium it contains is high, it can have the desired absorption in high doses. For this reason, magnesium oxide preparations cause diarrhea in people with normal bowel activity. This effect is observed much more frequently than magnesium citrate. It is not a supplement recommended for people who do not have chronic constipation problems.

Magnesium Glycinate– It consists of the combination of magnesium and the amino acid glycine. Just like magnesium citrate, it can be easily absorbed by the body and easily provide the desired magnesium levels. It is also known that the amino acid glycine improves sleep quality and has the ability to regulate circadian rhythm (13). Therefore, this supplement can be considered a more appropriate supplement for people who have sleep problems. At the same time, it is known that magnesium, bound to glycine, has a milder effect on the intestine and side effects such as diarrhea are much less common.

Magnesium L-Threonate- It is a magnesium supplement formed by the combination of the magnesium element and L-threonic acid. What makes this supplement a few steps ahead of all other magnesium supplements is its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. In this way, it has the ability to penetrate the cerebrospinal fluid and affect brain cells. Studies conducted on healthy individuals have shown that this magnesium supplement provides statistically significant and significant benefits on learning capacity and memory (14).

Studies show that magnesium deficiency may play a role in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. It has been shown in many studies that when magnesium t-threonate supplement is used, a protective effect is obtained against neuro-inflammation caused by neurodegenerative diseases in the brain (15). Magnesium l-threonate would be the most effective supplement for individuals who are prone to such neurodegenerative diseases or for people who want to boost brain health and support cognitive functions in general.

Magnesium Malate– It consists of a combination of magnesium and malic acid. Since it is the magnesium supplement with the highest absorption in the body, it can easily increase magnesium levels. Malic acid has been shown to increase exercise tolerance due to its effects on early recovery of muscles and pain control mechanism. In addition, there are studies showing that it may be beneficial for people with chronic pain problems such as fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome and migraine. More comprehensive studies are needed to determine the exact effects on fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome.

Magnesium Taurate- This magnesium supplement is one of the supplements that has gained popularity recently. It consists of the combination of magnesium and the amino acid taurine. Taurine is an amino acid that generally plays a role in regulating blood pressure levels and is important in the proper functioning of many functions in the heart. Scientific studies show that the supplement called magnesium taurate helps protect cardiovascular health with the combination of its positive effects on blood pressure and antioxidant effects (16). This should be the clearest magnesium supplement choice for people who want to use magnesium supplements and want to protect their heart health at the same time.

In addition to the supplements above, it is possible to find even more supplements. In general, the supplements described above are preferred due to their strikingly different effects on health.

References

1. Saris, N.-EL et al. (2000) 'Magnesium', Clinica Chimica Acta, 294(1–2), pp. 1–26. doi:10.1016/s0009-8981(99)00258-2. 

2. Jahnen-Dechent, W. and Ketteler, M. (2012) 'Magnesium basics', Clinical Kidney Journal, 5(Suppl 1), pp. i3–i14. doi:10.1093/ndtplus/sfr163. 

3.Fiser, R.T. et al. (1998) 'Ionized magnesium concentrations in critically ill children', Critical Care Medicine, 26(12), pp. 2048–2052. doi:10.1097/00003246-199812000-00039. 

4. Elin, RJ (2010) 'Overview of problems in the assessment of magnesium status', Magnesium in Cellular Processes and Medicine, pp. 67–76. doi:10.1159/000413192. 

5. Maier, J. A. et al. (2022) 'Magnesium and the brain: A focus on neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration', International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 24(1), p. 223. doi:10.3390/ijms24010223. 

6. Kirkland, A., Sarlo, G. and Holton, K. (2018) 'The role of magnesium in neurological disorders', Nutrients, 10(6), p. 730. doi:10.3390/nu10060730. 

7. Kwon, H.S. and Koh, S.-H. (2020) 'Neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative disorders: The roles of microglia and astrocytes', Translational Neurodegeneration, 9(1). doi:10.1186/s40035-020-00221-2. 

8. Agarwal, R. and Iezhitsa, I. (2023) 'Neuroinflammation: Role of magnesium', Vitamins and Minerals in Neurological Disorders, pp. 381–398. doi:10.1016/b978-0-323-89835-5.00027-2. 

9. Chutia, H. and Lynrah, KG (2015) 'Association of serum magnesium deficiency with insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus', Journal of Laboratory Physicians, 7(02), pp. 075–078. doi:10.4103/0974-2727.163131. 

10. Pham, P.-CT et al. (2005) 'Lower serum magnesium levels are associated with more rapid decline of renal function in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2', Clinical Nephrology, 63(06), pp. 429–436. doi:10.5414/cnp63429. 

11. Blancquaert, L., Vervaet, C. and Derave, W. (2019) 'Predicting and testing bioavailability of magnesium supplements', Nutrients, 11(7), p. 1663. doi:10.3390/nu11071663. 

12. Pickering, G. et al. (2020) 'Magnesium status and stress: The Vicious Circle Concept revisited', Nutrients, 12(12), p. 3672. doi:10.3390/nu12123672. 

13. Kawai, N. et al. (2014) 'The sleep-promoting and hypothermic effects of glycine are mediated by NMDA receptors in the suprachiasmatic nucleus', Neuropsychopharmacology, 40(6), pp. 1405–1416. doi:10.1038/npp.2014.326. 

14. Zhang, C. et al. (2022) 'A Magtein®, Magnesium L-threonate, -based formula improves brain cognitive functions in healthy Chinese adults', Nutrients, 14(24), p. 5235. doi:10.3390/nu14245235. 

15. Xiong, Y. et al. (2022) 'Magnesium-l-threonate exhibited a neuroprotective effect against oxidative stress damage in HT22 cells and alzheimer's disease mouse model', World Journal of Psychiatry, 12(3), pp. 410–424. doi:10.5498/wjp.v12.i3.410. 

16. Shrivastava, P. et al. (2019) 'Magnesium taurate attenuates progression of hypertension and cardiotoxicity against cadmium chloride-induced hypertensive albino rats', Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, 9(2), pp. 119–123. doi:10.1016/j.jtcme.2017.06.010. 

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Dr. Ahmet Özyiğit
Dr. Ahmet Özyiğit

Dr. Ahmet Özyiğit was born in 1981 in the Famagusta district of Cyprus. Ozgen and Dr. He is the youngest of Savaş Özyiğit's three children.

After completing his high school education at Türk Maarif College in 1998, he completed his undergraduate and graduate studies in economics in the American state of Kansas. Özyiğit, who later completed his doctorate education in the same field of science, published many articles in this field.

Özyiğit, who later became interested in medical science, studied medicine at the University of Nicosia Faculty of Medicine. In addition to this education, he received his master's degree in Clinical Embryology from the University of Leeds and postgraduate education in Endocrinology from the University of South Wales.

With an eclectic academic background, Dr. Özyiğit continues his clinical studies, especially on weight loss, metabolism and healthy aging. An active member of the American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine, Dr. Özyiğit applies anti-aging, weight loss and brain function improving treatments to his patients.

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